Signs and symptoms of diabetes are precursor to cardiovascular disease as a macrovascular diabetic complication. Diabetes mellitus disease is considered a cardiovascular risk-equivalent disease. The likelihood of dying of a first myocardial infraction is the same for people with signs and symptoms of diabetes disease as for a people without diabetes who has previously survived one myocardial infraction. Overwhelming majority of diabetes-related mortality is attributed to the three main forms of macrovascular diabetic complications. These three major macrovascular diabetic complications are: stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease.
Tag Archives: type 2 diabetes
Men and women in whom both diabetes mellitus and depression are likely to develop are usually struggling with obesity, smoke cigarettes, and have inactive ‘couch potato’ lifestyle. These people are in risk group for coronary artery disease because of elevatec C-reactive protein levels.
Although depression often precedes the onset of type 2 diabetes by 6 to 8 years, people with mental illness are at high risk for developing diabetes disease and ling-term diabetic complications including macrovascular disease and microvascular disease. » Read more
Meglitinides drug class for Type 2 diabetes treatment include repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix) as oral diabetic medications. High fasting insulin levels and a reduction in insulin action may be present in person with Type 2 diabetes symptoms but so is absent or blunted first-phase insulin response to a meal. Most sulfonylureas (except Amaryl glimepiride) increase pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretion as well as plasma insulin concentration in people with Type 2 diabetes symptoms. But sulfonylureas oral diabetic medications fail to improve first-phase insulin release. Here comes meglitinides for Type 2 diabetes treatment. Starlix (nateglinide) and Prandin (repaglinide) as oral diabetic medications do increase first-phase insulin response, allowing to control sugar levels in blood after a meal. Both Starlix 60 mg pills and Prandin 1 mg pills are rapid-acting insulin secretagogues. When Prandin or Starlix meglitinides are taken 15 to 20 minutes before a meal, postprandial glucose excersions can be contained and minimized by this oral diabetic medications. This is important because high glucose level after a meal has been linked to cardiovascular diabetic complication.
When should I check my blood sugar levels? The answer is now! As a matter of fact, th answer on the question “When should I check my blood sugar levels” can be only “now” or “as soon as possible, but better do it now”. Blood sugar level before eating should be measured first using glucometer for probable symptoms of Type 2 diabetes disease. Then blood sugar levels must be checked again after a meal. High glucose levels are usual flag for symptoms of Type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the microvascular complications of diabetes disease. Diabetic complications are causing most death in patients with diabetes disease. Diabetic nephropathy is a diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by following symptoms: progressive kidney failure, hypertension (high blood pressure), and proteinuria.
There is considerable interest in the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) medications for type 2 diabetes treatment because, as a class, dipeptidyl peptidase IV drugs such as Januvia 25 mg pills (sitagliptin) appear to be well tolerated by people on type 2 diabetes treatment and can be used efficiently as monotherapy or as combination therapy together with Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet, Glumetza drugs) oral diabetic medications. Beneficial effects of Januvia (sitagliptin) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors as class on the pancreas beta-cell function raise the possibility that these sitagliptin agents of DPP-IV inhibitors may be able to modify the natural history of type 2 diabetes, given that Januvia used in proper type 2 diabetes treatment plan.
Facts about diabetes disease and diabetic retinopathy. Dilated eye exams from an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) trained in recognizing diabetic retinopathy as diabetic complication are necessary to prevent loss of vision. Another fact about diabetic retinopathy is that until diabetic retinopathy becomes advanced, patients with diabetes disease remain without symptoms of diabetic retinopathy. Once pathologic changes occur within the retina, management changes from prevention of diabetic retinopathy to stabilization of the diabetic retinopathy disease process, so that vision may be preserved. The next fact about diabetes is that prolonged exposure to high glucose levels incites a cascade of harmful events in genetically susceptible patients with diabetes disease, leading to microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic retinopathy. Keeping glycated hemoglobin A1C levels below 7 percent target range can reduce the risk of onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy as one of diabetic complications by 35 to 75 percent. Important facts about diabetes and diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy are that hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, genetic factors, and especially smoking (yes, smoking of tobacco cigarettes) play significant riles in development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.
One of the most frustrating side effects associated with overall blood glucose control improvement in people with diabetes using intensive insulin therapy is weight gain. The addition of Symlin (pramlintide) to intensive insulin therapy for diabetes treatment improves long-term blood glucose control beyond that obtained with insulin therapy alone and significantly decreases weight gain and risk of hypoglycemia events. Pramlintide (Symlin) is an analogue to the native amylin.
Bydureon exenatide or Byetta exenatide are novel GLP-1 (Glucagon-like Peptide-1) incretin mimetic hormone FDA approved for use in type 2 diabetes treatment. Byetta (exenatide) and Bydureon (exenatide) are used in combination therapy to improve blood glucose control in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who are taking sulfonylureas, a metformin, a thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a combination of metformin and thiazolidinediones, or a combination of sulfonylureas and metformin.
Current widely accepted game plan for type two diabetes treatment suggest that lifestyle changes be initially prescribed including diabetic diet, followed by initiation of monotherapy with type 2 diabetes medications, followed by combination therapy (perhaps with exenatide drug Bydureon or Byetta), and ultimately by insulin regimen. It is common knowledge that every person with Type 2 diabetes will eventually need insulin therapy no matter how well it adhere to type 2 diabetes treatment with oral medications or diabetic diet.