Signs and symptoms of diabetes are precursor to cardiovascular disease as a macrovascular diabetic complication. Diabetes mellitus disease is considered a cardiovascular risk-equivalent disease. The likelihood of dying of a first myocardial infraction is the same for people with signs and symptoms of diabetes disease as for a people without diabetes who has previously survived one myocardial infraction. Overwhelming majority of diabetes-related mortality is attributed to the three main forms of macrovascular diabetic complications. These three major macrovascular diabetic complications are: stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease.
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Diabetic nephropathy is one of the microvascular complications of diabetes disease. Diabetic complications are causing most death in patients with diabetes disease. Diabetic nephropathy is a diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by following symptoms: progressive kidney failure, hypertension (high blood pressure), and proteinuria.
Facts about diabetes disease and diabetic retinopathy. Dilated eye exams from an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) trained in recognizing diabetic retinopathy as diabetic complication are necessary to prevent loss of vision. Another fact about diabetic retinopathy is that until diabetic retinopathy becomes advanced, patients with diabetes disease remain without symptoms of diabetic retinopathy. Once pathologic changes occur within the retina, management changes from prevention of diabetic retinopathy to stabilization of the diabetic retinopathy disease process, so that vision may be preserved. The next fact about diabetes is that prolonged exposure to high glucose levels incites a cascade of harmful events in genetically susceptible patients with diabetes disease, leading to microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic retinopathy. Keeping glycated hemoglobin A1C levels below 7 percent target range can reduce the risk of onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy as one of diabetic complications by 35 to 75 percent. Important facts about diabetes and diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy are that hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, genetic factors, and especially smoking (yes, smoking of tobacco cigarettes) play significant riles in development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.