Prevention of Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy
Newly diagnosed glucose intolerance during pregnancy is defined as gestational diabetes mellitus. Women with high pregnancy weight will almost certainly develop gestational diabetes. The only modifiable risk factor of gestational diabetes is pregnancy obesity. Recurrence of gestational diabetes appears to be higher in women who eat more fat foods between subsequent pregnancies as compared with women who have high-carbohydrate diet, or low-fat diet. Obese women have gestational diabetes recurrence rates of more than 90 percent! Despite the prevalence of gestatioanl diabetes, very little research has been done on preventing the disorder.Exercise regimen for pregnant women is a good choice to prevent and manage gestational diabetes. Because gestational diabetes is a state of altered insulin sensitivity, exercise annd other activities is a logical therapy. Regular exercise in previously inactive women may normalize high blood glucose levels. For an inherently inactive pregnant women with sedative lifestyle, increased daily activity together with exercise regimen may be a way to immediately improve glycemic control as well as significantly reduce the high risk of onset of Type 2 diabetes in the future, or substantially delay it.
Prevention of gestational diabetes can start as simple as to begin walking program. Yes, just walk! No need to go on 2-weeks hiking trial or go visit relatives on foot. Walking program for pregnant women can be very easy 15-minutes stroll around the block. Walking is arguably the best overall exercise to prevent and manage gestational diabetes. During one hour walk at 3.5 mph normal person will burn aroung 280 calories. Impressive?
Along with the exercise program, which requires little medical monitoring, women with gestational diabetes should follow a daily balanced diabetes diet, consisting of 60 percent carbohydrates, 20 percent fat, and 20 percent protein. Obese women should limit their carbohydrate intake to 40 percent of the total daily calories. Roughly 80 percent of women with insulin resistance or gestational diabetes can achieve tight blood glucose control on diabetes diet alone.
Often gestational diabetes is diagnosed well after embryogenesis occurs and has been associated with increasing risk of congenial anomalies. The most common fetal abnormality of gestational diabetes mellitus is macrosomia. Macrosomia is the condition when fetal weight greater than 4 to 4.5 kilogram which can be very problematic for normal delivery.
Gestational diabetes mellitus can result in complications for both the baby and mother. Possible maternal complications of gestational diabetes are: hypertension (high blood pressure), future risk of developing Type 2 sugar diabetes, preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, need for cesarean section, urinary tract infections. Possible fetal complications of gestational diabetes are: macrosomia (most common complication of gestational diabetes mellitus), hypocalcemia, polycythemia, future risk of obesity and diabetes, future risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome, preterm delivery and intrauterine death, postnatal hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. As you can see, there are much more danger for the baby from gestational diabetes than to the mother. Prevention of gestational diabetes plays huge role in healthy pregnancy.