Facts about diabetes disease and diabetic retinopathy. Dilated eye exams from an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) trained in recognizing diabetic retinopathy as diabetic complication are necessary to prevent loss of vision. Another fact about diabetic retinopathy is that until diabetic retinopathy becomes advanced, patients with diabetes disease remain without symptoms of diabetic retinopathy. Once pathologic changes occur within the retina, management changes from prevention of diabetic retinopathy to stabilization of the diabetic retinopathy disease process, so that vision may be preserved. The next fact about diabetes is that prolonged exposure to high glucose levels incites a cascade of harmful events in genetically susceptible patients with diabetes disease, leading to microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic retinopathy. Keeping glycated hemoglobin A1C levels below 7 percent target range can reduce the risk of onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy as one of diabetic complications by 35 to 75 percent. Important facts about diabetes and diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy are that hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, genetic factors, and especially smoking (yes, smoking of tobacco cigarettes) play significant riles in development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.
One of the most frustrating side effects associated with overall blood glucose control improvement in people with diabetes using intensive insulin therapy is weight gain. The addition of Symlin (pramlintide) to intensive insulin therapy for diabetes treatment improves long-term blood glucose control beyond that obtained with insulin therapy alone and significantly decreases weight gain and risk of hypoglycemia events. Pramlintide (Symlin) is an analogue to the native amylin.
Bydureon exenatide or Byetta exenatide are novel GLP-1 (Glucagon-like Peptide-1) incretin mimetic hormone FDA approved for use in type 2 diabetes treatment. Byetta (exenatide) and Bydureon (exenatide) are used in combination therapy to improve blood glucose control in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who are taking sulfonylureas, a metformin, a thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a combination of metformin and thiazolidinediones, or a combination of sulfonylureas and metformin.
Current widely accepted game plan for type two diabetes treatment suggest that lifestyle changes be initially prescribed including diabetic diet, followed by initiation of monotherapy with type 2 diabetes medications, followed by combination therapy (perhaps with exenatide drug Bydureon or Byetta), and ultimately by insulin regimen. It is common knowledge that every person with Type 2 diabetes will eventually need insulin therapy no matter how well it adhere to type 2 diabetes treatment with oral medications or diabetic diet.
Sulfonylureas medications for Type 2 diabetes treatment were first type two medications marketed in 1957 for type 2 diabetes treatment. The first generation sulfonylureas which are tolinase, diabinese, and orinase, can improve hyperglycemia but potential drug interactions resulting in hypoglycemia make these type 2 diabetes medications less attractive than the following second generation of sulfonylureas drugs. Glipizide and glyburide drugs were introduced in 1984, with glimepiride followed in 1996.
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In our era, the most danger for people with diabetes comes not from ketoacidosis as in the past before discovery of insulin, but from the numerous diabetic complications. One of these diabetic complications is diabetic autonomic neuropathy.
Neuropathies are characterized by a progressive loss of nerve fibers and nerve fiber density, resulting in altered nerve conduction velocity. Neuropathy is on of the most common complications of diabetes, with a lifetime prevalence between 25 and 50 percent in people with diabetes of different kind. » Read more
Amitriptyline pills at dosages ranging from 25mg to 150 mg is the best studied tricyclic antidepressant in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. The tricyclic antidepressants are widely used to tret chronic pain syndromes including diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. In high doses, antidepressants are most pronounced true antidepressant medications. But in lower doses, the antidepressants such as Amitriptyline and Desipramine have a more potent analgesic (painkiller) effect. Amitriptyline pills inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Curiously enough, none of the tricyclic antidepressants has been approved by the FDA for treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain despite their widespread use in diabetic pain management and treatment.
The purpose of intensive sugar diabetes management is to maintain normal blood glucose levels or as close to normal (non-diabetic) levels as posiible. The taget range of the blood sugar levels in the intensive sugar diabetes management is set to 75-125 mg/dl before meals. Main idea behind intensive sugar diabetes management is when blood glucose is maintained at lower levels consistently over the years, the risk of developing the long-term complications of sugar diabetes is significantly reduced. For children with Type 1 diabetes this becomes increasingly important once puberty has begun.
Exenatide drug under brand Byetta is a novel GPL-1 (Glucagon-like Peptide-1) incretin mimetic hormone that has been FDA approved for use in poorly managed Type 2 diabetes individuals using sulfonylureas and metformin pills. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 is secreted from enteroendocrine cells located in the ileum and colon in response to a meal. People with Type 2 sugar diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are GPL-1 (glucagon-like Peptide-1) deficient. When given before a meal, exenatide (Byetta) restores first-phase insulin response in people with Type 2 diabetes. Exenatide reduces postprandial glucagon levels and increases insulin release from the beta cells. Exenatide (Byetta) injections improve gastric emptying and promotes satiety. It is noted that Byetta (exenatide) appears to reduce beta-cell death (apoptosis). Exenatide (Byetta) functions in a glucose-dependent fashion which means that the effects of the exenatide drug are obvious mainly in the presence of hyperglycemia. You can buy exenatide drug Byetta online now from various vendors following selected links to the right.
Newly diagnosed glucose intolerance during pregnancy is defined as gestational diabetes mellitus. Women with high pregnancy weight will almost certainly develop gestational diabetes. The only modifiable risk factor of gestational diabetes is pregnancy obesity. Recurrence of gestational diabetes appears to be higher in women who eat more fat foods between subsequent pregnancies as compared with women who have high-carbohydrate diet, or low-fat diet. Obese women have gestational diabetes recurrence rates of more than 90 percent! Despite the prevalence of gestatioanl diabetes, very little research has been done on preventing the disorder. » Read more